Апр 122017
 

Every user of Linux operating systems, as well as other systems, has to install additional programs. In Windows operating systems, everything is very simple, as a rule there is an installer setup.exe, which helps to install software. But in Linux, things are somewhat different. How to install programs in Linux? Now consider this issue.

In Linux there are several types of installation packages and each distribution has its own package format. Fedora, Mandriva, Red Hat and Suse distributions use the standard installation for Linux RPM, developed by Red Hat. The RPM package file is usually named_program_name-version.rpm.

Another very popular format is DEB. Used in Debian, Ubuntu, Knoppix and Mepis. It has the name_program_name-version.deb.

And we went to the archives. Usually this is a .tar, .tar.gz, .tgz extension. They should be unpacked and then installed / compiled.

You must perform the installation procedure on behalf of the superuser.

Installing programs on Linux

Installing programs on Debian, Ubuntu.

To work with packages of the DEB format there are many tools, but most often use apt-get, it is included in the standard set of tools. To install the application, enter the command:

apt-get install package_nameа

For removing:

apt-get remove package_name

APT stores a local database of all packages and links available for installation where to take them. This database needs to be updated from time to time, with the command:

apt-get update

To update the obsolete packages (programs) on the computer, type the following commands:

apt-get update; apt-get upgrade

About APT can be read in more detail on the official website: http://www.debian.org/doc/manuals/apt-howto/

Installing programs on Fedora, Red Hat.

A utility similar to APT — yum. Download and install the package from the configured repository, we write the command:

yum install package_name

Delete the program:

yum remove package_name

The local yum database is not stored, so there is no need to update it. To install updates, use the command:

yum update

Select something specific for the update:

yum update package_name

Installing programs in Mandriva.

In Mandriva there is a set of tools for working with packages, called urpmi. For installation:

urpmi package_name

To delete:

urpme package_name

Update the local database with the package list:

urpmi.update -a

To install updates:

urpmi —auto-select

Installing programs from archives (tarballs)

For archives compressed with GZIP (gz, gz2, etc.) do this:

tar -xvzf file_name [/ note]
For archives compressed with the help of BZIP (bz, bz2, etc.) somewhat differently:

tar -xvjf filename [/ note]

Tar commands:

x — extract files from the archive;
v — detailed display of information on the screen;
f — Required. If you do not specify, Tar will try to use the tape instead of the file;
z — process the archive compressed with gzip;
j — Process the archive compressed with bzip.
After executing the command, a folder with the same name as the package will be created. Then you need to open this created folder with the command:

cd folder_name[/ note]

Further in the unpacked archive we read the instruction in the file README if there is. In any case, if the program is collected as an executable file, then the package will contain a .sh file, usually called install.sh. It’s just run for execution.

./install.sh[/ note]

But if the program is represented in the source code, execute the commands:

./configure
make
make install[/ note]

After installation, we perform:

make clean[/ note]

Well, that’s all, nothing complicated. Now you know how to install programs on Linux: Debian, Ubuntu, Fedora, Red Hat, Mandriva, including archives.


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